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sábado, 17 de dezembro de 2011

Music Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology: a collaboration


Music and Speech: How are these forms of communication related?
There are many similarities between speech/language and music. For example, in both speech and music, frequency, duration, and timbre elements unfold over time to convey a message. Both of these communication tools utilize prosodic information, such as inflection and phrasing, to help portray the meaning of this message (Donnelly, 2001).
The musical aspects of language include melodic contour, timbre variations, motherese or infant-directed speech, rhythm, and nonverbal aspects of language.


Because these forms are so closely related, a successful collaboration of two therapies related to music and speech — Speech-Language Pathology and Music Therapy — would be extremely beneficial for the client.

What is Speech-Language Pathology?
According to the ASHA Website,
Working with the full range of human communication and its disorders, speech-language pathologists (SLPs):
  • Evaluate and diagnose speech, language, cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders
  • Treat speech, language, cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders in individuals of all ages, from infants to the elderly
  • Examples of speech and language disorders: Articulation disorders, phonological disorders, speech/language impairment, and/or receptive/expressive language difficulty. Additionally, the SLP may work on expressive or receptive language difficulties related to a hearing loss (client may be wearing a hearing aid or cochlear implant).
What is music therapy?
According to the AMTA Website,
Music Therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.

So, why would music therapy services be beneficial in terms of SLP collaboration?
Knowing that one auditory training task could transfer to and enhance other auditory activities, there are many implications for using music therapy to address language and speech goals.

Music is:
  • Structured
  • Predictable
  • Repetitive
Songs and instrument play can be used to address:
  • Oral motor skills
  • Speech articulation
  • Language Acquisition
  • Length of Utterance
  • Social Skills
  • Language concepts
  • …and more!
The majority of music is structured, predictable, and repetitive and can provide rhythmic and melodic cues. Vocal flexibility, vocal imitation, and vocabulary reinforced through song lyrics, are all speech goals that can be addressed with music. These goals can be addressed through rhythm, rhyme, turn-taking (just like in conversation), and repetition. Relaxation exercises, song articulation experiences, and word/phrase rhythm chanting experiences are all strategies in which music can be used to address speech goals (Zoller, 1991). Music can assist breath and muscle control (Peters, 2000; Cohen, 1994), help the patient practice receptive and expressive language skills (Miller, 1982), and enhance articulation skills (Zoller, 1991). Self-esteem, confidence, attention, and listening skills can all be enhanced through music, as well.
Pairing Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) strategies with musical strategies has also been shown to help with social communication skills (Herman 1985). Signing and manual communication systems can be used to express song lyrics and signs paired with singing can be used together for total communication experiences (Darrow, 1987a). Studies have shown that children with autism learned more signs when they were paired with music and speech than when they were taught with music alone or speech alone (Buday, 1995).

Other methods to incorporate speech and language goals and music may include:
  • Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT)
  • Speech Stimulation (STIM)
  • Therapeutic Singing (TS)

In order to incorporate and implement some of the patient’s speech goals into the music therapy session, collaboration is a necessity. According to Register (2002), of the 695 music therapists questioned, 44.6% said that they collaborate with SLPs. Collaborating with the family, educators, doctors, speech pathologists, psychologists, therapists, social workers and other professionals that are involved in the patient’s daily life is key to their language-learning success (Rychener Hobson, 2006). Making sure everyone is on the same page and supporting the patient’s needs with a wide variety of specialties and activities can truly make an impact on the patient’s improvement.

2 comentários:

  1. Muito interessante! Agora que dou aulas de música percebo bem isto, e é interessante como o próprio programa de música propõe actividades que são importantes para o desenvolvimento da linguagem como as lengalengas, trabalhas também divisão silábica, entre inúmeras outras coisas como referido no artigo. Muito interessante mesmo!

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  2. É incrível, não é Sara? Quando me apercebi das similaridades entre linguagem e música, fez-se-me uma luz tipo "Eureka!". Na verdade, só achei estranho esta temática ainda não estar tão explorada quanto isso, nomeadamente em território nacional. Este foi um dos motivos pelos quais escolhi investigar a Terapia da Fala e Musicoterapia no Projecto de Investigação, e é a razão pela qual prossigo a exploração desta colaboração, que me parece tão promissora. Pretendo continuar a postar aqui assuntos deste cariz, e espero conseguir promover a divulgação do tema e possibilitar às pessoas interessadas manterem-se actualizadas!
    Desejo que tudo te corra bem, quer enquanto professora de Música, quer enquanto Terapeuta da Fala. Aproveita os teus conhecimentos para promover a colaboração entre as duas áreas e desta forma explorar positivamente o potencial dos teus "clientes"! :)
    Beijinhos

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